Explore further For many years, planetary scientists have been frustrated by their inability to better understand the major processes that impact the structure of Venus’s crust, i.e. its tectonics. Probes sent to study the planet have returned data that has allowed for creating maps of the surface, but that has only heightened the problem, because it appears there is no plate movement (the large number of craters suggest there is no churning). But trenches have also been observed that are similar to those seen with Earth’s subduction zones. Compounding the problem is the fact that all of the factors that go into defining how a planet’s crust look are too complex to be modeled on a computer accurately. In this new effort, the researchers took a different approach—they created a physical model.The model the team built was simple. They placed a quantity of finely ground sand in a bowl, added some water and then heated it from below. The team was not looking to recreate the entire Venus landscape, or even a portion of it. Instead, they were looking to explain the way that coronae (volcanic-tectonic looking features) are formed. Coronae are circular depressions with bulges in the middle surrounded by trenches.In heating their bowl of mud, the researchers noted that a crust formed due to evaporation at the surface and then bulges formed as hot parts below the crust forced their way upward. Eventually, the material that was pushed from below (similar to Earth mantle plumes) pierced the surface and leaked out onto the surrounding surface (rather like a pie in the oven). As material leaked out, pressure was relieved, causing the bulge to deflate even as more material made its way through the puncture wound, which soon hardened, creating a small bulge in the center of a depression surrounded by trenches.The researchers report that comparing their model to maps of Venus’s surface depicting coronae showed them to be very similar, suggesting they may finally have solved the mystery of how coronae are formed. More information: A. Davaille et al. Experimental and observational evidence for plume-induced subduction on Venus, Nature Geoscience (2017). DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2928AbstractWhy Venus lacks plate tectonics remains an unanswered question in terrestrial planet evolution. There is observational evidence for subduction—a requirement for plate tectonics—on Venus, but it is unclear why the features have characteristics of both mantle plumes and subduction zones. One explanation is that mantle plumes trigger subduction. Here we compare laboratory experiments of plume-induced subduction in a colloidal solution of nanoparticles to observations of proposed subduction sites on Venus. The experimental fluids are heated from below to produce upwelling plumes, which in turn produce tensile fractures in the lithosphere-like skin that forms on the upper surface. Plume material upwells through the fractures and spreads above the skin, analogous to volcanic flooding, and leads to bending and eventual subduction of the skin along arcuate segments. The segments are analogous to the semi-circular trenches seen at two proposed sites of plume-triggered subduction at Quetzalpetlatl and Artemis coronae. Other experimental deformation structures and subsurface density variations are also consistent with topography, radar and gravity data for Venus. Scaling analysis suggests that this regime with limited, plume-induced subduction is favoured by a hot lithosphere, such as that found on early Earth or present-day Venus. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The pitch of a person’s voice is one of the characteristics by which humans are judged by others. For example, those with a high pitch are often found to be annoying, while those with a low pitch are seen to be commanding. Also, scientists have discovered in recent years that what happens in the womb can have a major impact on personal and physical traits—one of which is voice pitch. In this new effort, the researchers wondered if there might be a connection between the pitch of a baby’s cries, and the voice they come into as children. To find out, they pulled voice recordings made during a prior longitudinal study of babies crying and compared them with the same individuals five years later.The researchers found that the voice pitch of a crying baby could be correlated to speaking pitch five years later. Or put another way, the pitch of a crying baby could be used to predict what that child would sound like as a five-year-old. This finding led them to revisit the findings of another team who had found that right-hand finger ratios could be used to predict pitch in both children and babies. That team had found that if the index finger on the right hand is longer than the ring finger, a baby will likely to grow up to have a high-pitched voice. Conversely, if it is shorter, they will be more likely to have a lower-pitch voice. The researchers note that prior studies suggested this was due to hormone levels present in the womb. And this, they suggest, indicates that such levels are likely the cause of the impact on voice pitch.The researchers also note that more work will need to be done to better understand the connection between the cries of a baby and how they will sound as children, because they only had 15 volunteer samples in their study. Explore further Pregnancy temporarily lowers a woman’s voice – new study More information: Florence Levrero et al. The pitch of babies’ cries predicts their voice pitch at age 5, Biology Letters (2018). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2018.0065AbstractVoice pitch (fundamental frequency, F0) is a key dimension of our voice that varies between sexes after puberty, and also among individuals of the same sex both before and after puberty. While a recent longitudinal study indicates that inter-individual differences in voice pitch remain stable in men during adulthood and may even be determined before puberty (Fouquet et al. 2016 R. Soc. open sci. 3, 160395. (DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160395)), whether these differences emerge in infancy remains unknown. Here, using a longitudinal study design, we investigate the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in F0 are already present in the cries of pre-verbal babies. While based on a small sample (n = 15), our results indicate that the F0 of babies’ cries at 4 months of age may predict the F0 of their speech utterances at 5 years of age, explaining 41% of the inter-individual variance in voice pitch at that age in our sample. We also found that the right-hand ratio of the length of their index to ring finger (2D : 4D digit ratio), which has been proposed to constitute an index of prenatal testosterone exposure, was positively correlated with F0 at both 4 months and 5 years of age. These findings suggest that a substantial proportion of between-individual differences in voice pitch, which convey important biosocial information about speakers, may partly originate in utero and thus already be present soon after birth. Journal information: Biology Letters © 2018 Phys.org Citation: Pitch of baby cries found to be predictor of vocal pitch at age five (2018, July 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-pitch-baby-cries-predictor-vocal.html Credit: CC0 Public Domain A combined team of researchers from the University of Lyon/Saint-Etienne in France and the University of Sussex in the U.K. has found that the pitch of a baby’s cries can be an indicator of voice pitch at age five. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, the group outlines their study and what they found. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Models suggest injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere could have unintended consequences (2018, October 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-10-sulfate-aerosols-stratosphere-unintended-consequences.html A team of researchers from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Cornell University has found via modeling that injecting sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere could have unintended negative consequences. In their paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, the group describe their models and what they showed. As the planet continues to heat up due to the collective refusal to stop pumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, scientists continue to look for other ways we might save ourselves. Instead of curbing gas emissions, it might be possible to cool the planet in other ways, such as by injecting sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere. The idea is to mimic the cooling effect of volcanic eruptions.Regarding such an approach, researchers have proposed that the aerosols be dispersed from balloons or airplanes at approximately 15 and 30 degrees latitude on both sides of the equator. The desired results would be reduced surface warming and a positive change in the temperature gradient.To learn more about what might happen to the planet if such an experiment were actually carried out, the researchers ran 20 computer simulations to demonstrate the impact of adding sulfate aerosols to the stratosphere in the proposed manner.The researchers report that overall, the models showed the desired cooling impact. But they also showed something less helpful—reduced global rainfall. The models showed that the changes in rainfall would not be uniform, either; some areas would get less than others. And as some of those areas, such as the North Atlantic, received less rainfall, the ocean would experience an increase in salinity, which would make the water denser. That denser water would then have an impact on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, burying more heat in the deep ocean. The net result would be a warmer ocean, more polar melting and faster rising sea levels.The researchers conclude their report by pointing out that the true impact on the planet of such an endeavor could not be shown by computer modeling—at least not with complete confidence. Models show injecting aerosols into the atmosphere to prevent hurricanes possibly feasible Journal information: Nature Geoscience More information: John T. Fasullo et al. Persistent polar ocean warming in a strategically geoengineered climate, Nature Geoscience (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0249-7
India has a very rich tradition of art in all its facets. In Rajasthan, especially, vibrant colours express the central theme of the art works that distinguish themselves from the relatively stark, arid landscape and give joy and meaning to the process of living. The rhythm, music and romance of life is communicated through a vibrant interplay of colours. The central theme of artist Archana Jaideep Singh’s artworks is the quest for experiencing and depicting joy, beauty and love in life. Singh’s art is a unique expression of her existence. Having spent most of her life in physical pain and illnesses and consequently, she has created a colourful inner landscape to escape the depression and despair of a morbid existence. ‘The play of colours in my mind has had a major therapeutic role in my life and has been a tremendous source of fulfilment in my existence. Every individual has a particular calling – mine is painting with strong, vibrant colours. This energises my sense of freedom and identity,’ says Singh. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Singh believes that when we experience creation around us, we get mesmerised by its expression through seasons, the air that we breathe, the aroma of fresh grass and trees, the whispering of the leaves, the colours and fragrance of flowers of all types, the chirping of birds… Experiencing nature is like being one with the canvas of creation. The living objects on this very alive earth have innate propulsion to create, rejoice and find the musical rhythm within their own selves to experience life. In all societies, including the most primitive ones in the world, we discover that they have their own iconic expression of art in various forms like dancing, singing, painting on the inside and outside of caves, on the outside and inside of huts, on murals in havelis and palaces, in sculpture and architecture and more.There is no restriction vis a vis mediums for the expression of her artistic propulsions. In different phases, depending on moods, she utilises a variety of mediums, for example, sketches on paper using charcoal and pen, watercolours, oil paints on canvas, while in the exhibition held recently in the Capital, she used acrylic paints on canvas.
The condition requires immediate medical attention and can prove to be
Make way ladies, more men are now seen heading to the spa to relieve stress, lose weight, get in shape or just to treat themselves.“In recent years, more men have been seen coming to the spa and they are quite aware of what they want,” says Harish Kalathil, Spa Director at the Park Hotel.Men in the age group of 25 to 30 years, he says, are attracted to the variety of spa sessions now in vogue.Industry experts say there is a boom in the men’s spa section this year. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’While in the West, the spa has gone the express treatment route at home, the sessions have become longer with people wanting an entire wellness package, which includes gym or yoga workout sessions followed by a spa treatment and a spa diet.According to the Spa Association of India, the spa and body treatment segment is estimated to grow approximately $772 million over the next five to eight years.Spas are also paying attention to personalisation and using organic products. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixSpecialised spa diets customized to the clients needs are also being served by various spa resorts in the country.With people now looking for value for money options in the spa sector. Stand alone spas have come up with packages suitable for every pocket size.Spa professionals across the world are also thinking about coming up with spas in corporate offices, which will help professional to get rid of their stress in office itself and go home fresh and rejuvenated.
Kolkata: BJP President Amit Shah on Thursday reached out to the rural families in West Bengal’s Purulia district as part of the party’s ‘Jan Sampark Abhiyan’, a nationwide campaign to highlight the success of the NDA regime in the last four years. “I came here to let people know about the Modi government’s initiatives for the poor in the country. I distributed the documents of those records, printed in Bengali. We are trying to deliver door to door message about how this government has tried to reach out to every household in the country in the last four years,” Shah said in Lakhda village on the second day of his two-day Bengal tour. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights “The BJP has set a target to meet nearly one crore families in the country. I have come to Purulia as part of our party’s ‘Jan Sampark Abhiyan’ and have visited five houses in the village to inaugurate the initiative here,” he said. Shah would hold a public meeting in the district bordering Jharkhand, where the Bharatiya Janata Party made significant gains in last month’s rural polls against the ruling Trinamool Congress. He is also scheduled to meet the bereaved family members of the three BJP activists from Purulia who were allegedly killed after the rural poll results. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed Earlier in the day, Shah visited the famous tantrik temple in Tarapith, Birbum district. The BJP chief, accompanied by state party president Dilip Ghosh and BJP’s National Secretary Rahul Sinha, also met the local party leaders and activists in Birbhum. Shah who is on a two day trip to Bengal, held a string of meetings with the party’s election committee, social media cell and senior state leaders on Wednesday. He also addressed a group of intellectuals from the state on the occasion of Bengali novelist Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s birthday.
Parents must look at how their kids negotiate and resolve fights so that they do the same to cement the relationship even stronger, says
Nigerian villagers on Wednesday described the carnage unleashed by a huge blast at a market in jihadist group Boko Haram’s northeastern heartland as the death toll rose to 50.The blast – caused by explosives concealed in a crop-spraying backpack – ripped through the weekly market in the village of Sabon Gari, around 135 kilometres (85 miles) south of Borno state capital Maiduguri, during peak trading on Wednesday.The Nigerian military described the attack as a “suicide bombing” although no local authorities have confirmed this and witnesses said the bag had been “abandoned” before it exploded. “When the blast happened, people in the market fled in fear. They abandoned their wares. Some managed to return for their